The reliable production of two-dimensional (2D) crystals are essential for exploring new science and implementing novel technologies in the 2D limit. However, ongoing efforts are limited by the vague potential in scaling-up, restrictions in growth substrates and conditions, small sizes and/or instability of synthesized materials. Here we report the fabrication of large-area, high-quality 2D tellurene by a substrate-free solution process. The crystals exhibit process-tunable thicknesses from a monolayer to tens of nanometers, and lateral sizes up to 100 um. The chiral structure of tellurene gives rise to strong in-plane anisotropic properties and giant thickness-dependent shifts in Raman vibrational modes, unseen in 2D layered materials. The tellurene transistors can exhibit air-stable performance at room temperature for over two months, with on/off ratios on the order of 106 and field-effect mobility ~700 cm2/Vs. More strikingly, with scaled channel length and integration with high-k dielectrics, the record-high on-state current density of 1.06 A/mm is demonstrated, surpassing all state-of-the-art 2D-based transistors. Our versatile solution process allows access to a broad range of characterization and application of tellurene as a new 2D semiconductor for high-performance, energy-efficient electronics in future ubiquitous applications.
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