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Yixiu Wang1 Gang Qiu1 Ruoxing Wang1 Peide Ye1 Wenzhuo Wu1

1, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States

The reliable production of two-dimensional (2D) crystals are essential for exploring new science and implementing novel technologies in the 2D limit. However, ongoing efforts are limited by the vague potential in scaling-up, restrictions in growth substrates and conditions, small sizes and/or instability of synthesized materials. Here we report the fabrication of large-area, high-quality 2D tellurene by a substrate-free solution process. The crystals exhibit process-tunable thicknesses from a monolayer to tens of nanometers, and lateral sizes up to 100 um. The chiral structure of tellurene gives rise to strong in-plane anisotropic properties and giant thickness-dependent shifts in Raman vibrational modes, unseen in 2D layered materials. The tellurene transistors can exhibit air-stable performance at room temperature for over two months, with on/off ratios on the order of 106 and field-effect mobility ~700 cm2/Vs. More strikingly, with scaled channel length and integration with high-k dielectrics, the record-high on-state current density of 1.06 A/mm is demonstrated, surpassing all state-of-the-art 2D-based transistors. Our versatile solution process allows access to a broad range of characterization and application of tellurene as a new 2D semiconductor for high-performance, energy-efficient electronics in future ubiquitous applications.
1. Wang, Y. X., Qiu, G., Wang, R. X., Huang, S. Y., Wang, Q. X., Liu, Y. Y., Du, Y. C., Goddard, W. A., Kim, M. J., Xu, X. F., Ye, P. D., Wu, W. Z., “Field-effect transistors made from solution-grown two-dimensional tellurene”, Nature Electronics, 2018, 1, 228-236.
2. Wu, W. Z., Qiu, G., Wang, Y. X., Wang, R. X., Ye, P. D., “Tellurene: its physical properties, scalable nanomanufacturing, and device applications”, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2018, 47, 7203-7212.
3. Qiu, G., Wang, Y. X., Nie, Y. F., Zheng, Y. P., Cho, K., Wu, W. Z., Ye, P. D., “Quantum transport and band structure evolution high magnetic field in few-layer tellurene”, Nano Letters, 2018, 18, 5760-5767.
4. Jin S. Y., Wang, Y. X., Motlag, M., Gao, S. J., Xu, J., Nian, Q., Wu, W. Z., Cheng, G. J., “Large area direct laser shock imprinting of 3D biomimic hierarchical metal surface for triboelectric nanogenerator”, Adv. Mater., 2018, 30 (11), 1705840.
5. Gao, S. J., Wang, Y. X., Wang, R. X., Wu, W. Z., “Piezotronic effect in 1D van der Waals solid of elemental tellurium nanobelt for smart adaptive electronics", Semicond. Sci. Technol., 2017, 32, 104004.
6. Du, Y., Qiu, G., Wang, Y. X., Si, M., Xu, X., Wu, W. Z., Ye, P. D., “One-dimensional van der Waals material tellurium: Raman spectroscopy under strain and magneto-transport”, Nano Lett., 2017, 17 (6), 3965-3973.

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