Recently, piezoelectric nanogenerator（PENG） and triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) have attracted much attention and been considered as another potential solution for harvesting mechanical energy. With its high output performance, outstanding biocompatibility and low cost, nanogenerator（NG） has been studied for powering implantable medical electronic devices.
Here, we demonstrated an in vivo biomechanical-energy harvesting using a NG. An implantable triboelectric nanogenerator (iTENG) in a living animal has been developed to harvest energy from its periodic breathing. The energy generated from breathing and body moving was used to power a prototype pacemaker and a low-level laser cure (SPLC) system, respectively. It was found that the self-powered system could regulate the heart rate of a rat and significantly accelerated the mouse embryonic osteoblasts' proliferation and differentiation. Real-time acquisition and wireless transmission of self-powered cardiac monitoring data was demonstrated for the first time. It showed broad clinical applications of implantable self-powered medical systems for disease detection and health care. These works are concentrated on live-powered implantable medical devices. The NGs can convert the mechanical energy from human motion into electricity and drive the implanted long-term self-powered medical devices or biosensors. These are significant progress for fabricating implantable self-powered medical electronic devices using NGs as a power source and an active sensor.
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